What is strep throat?

Strep throat is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation and pain in the throat. This common condition is caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. Strep throat can affect children and adults of all ages. However, it’s especially common in children between the ages of 5 and 15Sneezing and coughing can spread the infection from one person to another.

Symptoms of strep throat

The severity of strep throat can vary from person-to-person. Some people experience mild symptoms like a sore throat, whereas other people have more severe symptoms including fever and difficulty swallowing. The common symptoms of strep throat include: The symptoms of strep throat typically develop within five days of exposure to the bacteria.

3 Levels Of Heat-Related Illness

While spending time outside is a great way to get fresh air and exercise, spending too much time in sweltering heat without relief can be dangerous. Prolonged exposure to heat can lead to heat-related illnesses like mild heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or severe heat stroke. Each level of illness causes different symptoms. Knowing the warning signs will help you identify the degree of seriousness and how you should respond.

1. Heat Cramps

Heat cramps are painful muscle cramps or spasms in the abdomen, arms, or legs. They’re the first sign of heat illness, and your condition can worsen if you don’t cool down. Heat cramps typically occur after intense exercise or sweating in high heat. You may also experience flushed, moist skin. First Aid
  • Move to a cool place to rest.
  • Loosen your clothing and fan skin.
  • Sip cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar.
  • Stretch your muscles slowly.

2. Heat Exhaustion

More severe than heat cramps, heat exhaustion can include excessive sweating, clammy skin, a fever over 100.4° F, dizziness, headaches, nausea, and a fast, weak pulse. Heat exhaustion can escalate to heat stroke if left untreated. First Aid
  • Move to a cool place to rest.
  • Loosen your clothing and fan skin to cool down.
  • Sip cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar.
  • If you experience no improvement, get medical help right away.

3. Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is the most serious heat-related illness and requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include a high body temperature of 103°F or higher, warm and dry skin, confusion or slurred speech, agitation, nausea, vomiting, and a rapid heart rate. Seizures and loss of consciousness are possible. First Aid
  • Call 911 right away.
  • Move to a cool, shaded area until medical help arrives.
  • Remove excess clothing and fan the skin.
  • Place cold, wet cloths on skin and ice bags on groin and armpit areas.

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is an uneasiness of the stomach that often comes before vomitingVomiting is the forcible voluntary or involuntary emptying ("throwing up") of stomach contents through the mouth.

What Causes Nausea or Vomiting?

Nausea and vomiting are not diseases, but they are symptoms of many conditions such as: The causes of vomiting differ according to age. For children, it is common for vomiting to occur from a viral infectionfood poisoningmilk allergy, motion sickness, overeating or feeding, coughing, or blocked intestines and illnesses in which the child has a high fever. The timing of the nausea or vomiting can indicate the cause. When appearing shortly after a meal, nausea or vomiting may be caused by food poisoninggastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), an ulcer, or bulimia. Nausea or vomiting one to eight hours after a meal may also indicate food poisoning. However, certain food- borne bacteria, such as salmonella, can take longer to produce symptoms. You should seek immediate medical care if any of the following situations occur with vomiting:
  • There is blood in the vomit (bright red or "coffee grounds" in appearance)
  • Severe headache or stiff neck
  • Lethargy, confusion, or a decreased alertness
  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Rapid breathing or pulse
Source: https://www.webmd.com

Allergic Reaction

What Is an Allergic Reaction?

Some people sneeze like crazy. Others get itchy hives or watery eyes. But whatever the reaction, it boils down to one thing: allergies. If you have allergies, you have lots of company. As many as 30% of U.S. adults and 40% of children are in the same boat as you. While your problem may seem to start in the nose or the eyes, allergies actually come from an immune system run wild. Learning why these reactions happen can help you keep things under control and feeling better.

Why Allergic Reactions Happen

Your immune system has an important job: to defend your body from invaders such as bacteria and viruses that mean you harm. But when it makes war on substances it shouldn’t, that’s an allergy. Peanuts, eggs, or pollen, for example, can trigger reactions. They are called allergens. You can come into contact with allergens in many ways: through the skin, eyes, nose, mouth, or stomach. This can cause your sinuses to clog up, inflame your skin, make it harder to breathe, or cause stomach problems.

Types of Allergies

Here are some common types of allergies: Hay fever: Also known as allergic rhinitis, it can cause: Food allergies : You may feel tingling in your mouth. Your tongue, lips, throat, or face might swell up. Or you could get hives. In the worst cases, you might have anaphylaxis and will need medical help right away. Eczema: Also known as atopic dermatitis, it is a skin condition. You might have it if you have itching, redness, and peeling or flaking. Medications: If you’re allergic to a certain drug, you may get a rash, facial swelling, or hives. You could find yourself wheezing. In severe cases, you may develop anaphylaxis. Stings: If you’re allergic to bees or other insects you may get:
  • A large area of swelling, known as edema, at the site of the sting
  • Itching or hives all over your body
  • Shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, or a cough 

How Can I Get Relief?

You can find treatment options for mild to moderate allergic reactions. Antihistamines and decongestants can help treat certain symptoms, as can nasal sprays. If you have an allergic-type asthma, your doctor might also prescribe an inhaler to ease attacks. Or she may inject a special antibody to manage symptoms. If you don’t get enough relief by avoiding your allergens and using medications, your doctor may want to give you allergy shots. This type of treatment is called immunotherapy, and it can be effective for hay fever and allergic asthma.   Source: https://www.webmd.com

Allergies

An allergy is a reaction by your immune system to something that does not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Normally, your immune system fights germs. It is your body's defense system. In most allergic reactions, however, it is responding to a false alarm. Genes and the environment probably both play a role. Allergies can cause a variety of symptoms such as a runny nose, sneezing, itching, rashes, swelling, or asthma. Allergies can range from minor to severe. Anaphylaxis is a severe reaction that can be life-threatening. Doctors use skin and blood tests to diagnose allergies. Treatments include medicines, allergy shots, and avoiding the substances that cause the reactions.   source: https://medlineplus.gov/allergy.html

Ear Infection

Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take their children to the doctor. The most common type of ear infection is called otitis media. It is caused by swelling and infection of the middle ear. The middle ear is located just behind the eardrum. An acute ear infection starts over a short period and is painful. Ear infections that last a long time or come and go are called chronic ear infections. Anything that causes the eustachian tubes to become swollen or blocked makes more fluid build up in the middle ear behind the eardrum. Some causes are:
  • Allergies
  • Colds and sinus infections
  • Excess mucus and saliva produced during teething
  • Infected or overgrown adenoids (lymph tissue in the upper part of the throat)
  • Tobacco smoke
Ear infections are also more likely in children who spend a lot of time drinking from a sippy cup or bottle while lying on their back. Getting water in the ears will not cause an acute ear infection, unless the eardrum has a hole in it. Acute ear infections most often occur in the winter. You cannot catch an ear infection from someone else. But a cold that spreads among children may cause some of them to get ear infections. Risk factors for acute ear infections include:
  • Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children)
  • Changes in altitude or climate
  • Cold climate
  • Exposure to smoke
  • Family history of ear infections
  • Not being breastfed
  • Pacifier use
  • Recent ear infection
  • Recent illness of any type (because illness lowers the body's resistance to infection)

Symptoms

In infants, often the main sign of an ear infection is acting irritable or crying that cannot be soothed. Many infants and children with an acute ear infection have a fever or trouble sleeping. Tugging on the ear is not always a sign that the child has an ear infection. Symptoms of an acute ear infection in older children or adults include:
  • Ear pain or earache
  • Fullness in the ear
  • Feeling of general illness
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Hearing loss in the affected ear
The ear infection may start shortly after a cold. Sudden drainage of yellow or green fluid from the ear may mean the eardrum has ruptured. All acute ear infections involve fluid behind the eardrum. At home, you can use an electronic ear monitor to check for this fluid. You can buy this device at a drugstore. You still need to see a health care provider to confirm an ear infection.

Exams and Tests

The provider will look inside the ears using an instrument called an otoscope. This may show:
  • Areas of dullness or redness
  • Air bubbles or fluid behind the eardrum
  • Bloody fluid or pus inside the middle ear
  • A hole (perforation) in the eardrum
The provider might recommend a hearing test if the person has a history of ear infections.

Treatment

Some ear infections clear on their own without antibiotics. Often, treating the pain and allowing the body time to heal itself is all that is needed:
  • Apply a warm cloth or warm water bottle to the affected ear.
  • Use over-the-counter pain relief drops for ears. Or, ask the provider about prescription eardrops to relieve pain.
  • Take over-the-counter medicines such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain or fever. DO NOT give aspirin to children.
All children younger than 6 months with a fever or symptoms of an ear infection should see a provider. Children who are older than 6 months may be watched at home if they DO NOT have:
  • A fever higher than 102°F (38.9°C)
  • More severe pain or other symptoms
  • Other medical problems
If there is no improvement or if symptoms get worse, schedule an appointment with the provider to determine whether antibiotics are needed. ANTIBIOTICS A virus or bacteria can cause ear infections. Antibiotics will not help an infection that is caused by a virus. Most providers don't prescribe antibiotics for every ear infection. However, all children younger than 6 months with an ear infection are treated with antibiotics. Your provider is more likely to prescribe antibiotics if your child:
  • Is under age 2
  • Has a fever
  • Appears sick
  • Does not improve in 24 to 48 hours
If antibiotics are prescribed, it is important to take them every day and to take all of the medicine. DO NOT stop the medicine when symptoms go away. If the antibiotics do not seem to be working within 48 to 72 hours, contact your provider. You may need to switch to a different antibiotic. Side effects of antibiotics may include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Although rare, serious allergic reactions may also occur. Some children have repeat ear infections that seem to go away between episodes. They may receive a smaller, daily dose of antibiotics to prevent new infections.
https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000638.htm

Eczema

Eczema is a term for several different types of skin swelling. Eczema is also called dermatitis. Most types cause dry, itchy skin and rashes on the face, inside the elbows and behind the knees, and on the hands and feet. Scratching the skin can cause it to turn red, and to swell and itch even more. Eczema is not contagious. The cause is not known. It is likely caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Eczema may get better or worse over time, but it is often a long-lasting disease. People who have it may also develop hay fever and asthma. The most common type of eczema is atopic dermatitis. It is most common in babies and children but adults can have it too. As children who have atopic dermatitis grow older, this problem may get better or go away. But sometimes the skin may stay dry and get irritated easily. Treatments may include medicines, skin creams, light therapy, and good skin care. You can prevent some types of eczema by avoiding
  • Things that irritate your skin, such as certain soaps, fabrics, and lotions
  • Stress
  • Things you are allergic to, such as food, pollen, and animals
source-www.medlineplus.gov

Urinary Tract Infection

Symptoms: Urinary tract infections do not always have symptoms but some may include: The urge to urinate A burning sensation upon urination small amounts of urine Urine that looks cloudy red, bright pink or cola-colored — might be blood in the urine abnormal odor in urine Pain in pelvic, in females — center of the pelvis and area surrounding the pubic bone Types of UTI Kidneys (acute pyelonephritis) Upper back and side pain High fever Shaking and chills Nausea Vomit Bladder (cystitis) Pelvic pressure Lower abdomen discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning upon urination Discharge Description: UTI's typically happens when a bacteria enters the urinary tract through the urethra, and it spreads. When this occurs, bacteria may grow and develop into an infection in the urinary tract. UTI's are more common in women. Infection of the bladder is commonly caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is more likely found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, there may be other bacteria also responsible. Sexual intercourse may also cause cystitis. Infection of the urethra happens when GI bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. The female urethra is close to the vagina which causes sexually transmitted infections. Treatment: Antibiotics are the first line treatment for UTI. The drugs prescribed and for how long depends on your health condition and which type of bacteria is found in your urine. Medicines commonly recommended for simple UTIs include: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, others) Fosfomycin (Monurol) Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Macrobid) Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Cephalexin (Keflex) Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) Doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin, others) Commonly symptoms clear up within a few days of treatment. However, you may need to continue antibiotics until the antibiotics are gone.

Headaches

There are many different types of headaches. Although not all headaches are the same, they all share at least one thing in common -- they cause pain. But many headaches also cause other unwanted symptoms, including nausea and vomiting.

Tension Headaches

People with tension headaches commonly report these symptoms: Episodic Tension Headaches (occur less than 15 days per month)
  • Pain is mild to moderate, constant band-like pain or pressure
  • Pain affects the front, top or sides of the head.
  • Pain usually begins gradually, and often occurs in the middle of the day
  • Pain may last from 30 minutes to several days

Chronic Tension Headaches (occur more than 15 days per month)

  • Pain may vary in intensity throughout the day, but the pain is almost always present
  • Pain comes and goes over a prolonged period of time.
  • Headache upon awakening
  • Difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Disturbed concentration
  • Mild sensitivity to light or noise
  • General muscle aching
The symptoms of migraine headaches can occur in various combinations and include:
  • Moderate to severe pain (often described as pounding, throbbing pain) that can affect the whole head, or can shift from one side of the head to the other
  • Sensitivity to light, noise or odors
  • Blurred vision
  • Nausea or vomiting, stomach upset, abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sensations of being very warm or cold
  • Paleness
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Fever (rare)
  • Bright flashing dots or lights, blind spots, wavy or jagged lines (aura)
  • Cluster Headaches

  •  Intense one-sided pain described as having a burning or piercing quality that is throbbing or constant
  • Pain is located behind one eye or in the eye region, without changing sides.
  • Pain lasts a short time, generally 30 to 90 minutes (but can last for three hours); the headache will disappear, only to recur later that day (most sufferers get one to three headaches and some up to eight per day during a cluster period).
  • Headaches occur very regularly, generally at the same time each day, and they often awaken the person at the same time during the night.

    Sinus Headaches

  • Deep and constant pain in the cheekbones, forehead or bridge of the nose.

  • The pain usually intensifies with sudden head movement or straining and usually occurs with other sinus symptoms, such as nasal discharge, feeling of fullness in the ears, fever, and facial swelling.
  • Come to our Emergency Room if:

  • You are having the worst headache ever
  • You are having your worst migraine attack ever
  • Your headache is accompanied by the following symptoms:
  •  Unresolved loss of vision
  •  Loss of consciousness
  • Uncontrollable vomiting
  •   The pain of your headache lasts more than 72 hours with less than a solid four-hour pain-free period while awake.
  •   You experience a headache or a migraine attack that presents unusual symptoms that are abnormal for you and frightening
Source:https://www.webmd.com

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is when there is an infection in one or both lungs. It is caused by many germs including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is also caused by inhaling a liquid or chemical.The people that are most at risk are children under age two and elderly over sixty- five, also those who already have medical problems. Symptoms of pneumonia include high fever, chills, cough with phlegm that does not get better. Shortness of breath may develop and chest pain may occur. Treatment: If it is caused by bacteria antibiotics will help. If it is viral then an antiviral medicine will treat it. Prevention: There are vaccines to prevent pneumococcal pneumonia and the flu. Hand washing and not smoking are also preventative measures.   Pneumonia https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19680.htm